Additional Documents

The Kidnaping of Manuel Sarabia in The Border

Article in Regeneración reporting the founding of Club Libertad, Douglas AZ in February 1906. Spanish original can be found at archivomagon.

Club Libertad of Douglas

To the President of the Organizing Junta of the Mexican Liberal Party, Ricardo Flores Magón, St. Louis, Missouri:

I have the honor of relating that on the third day of this month, the Club Libertad was installed in this city. “In the City of Douglas, Cochise County, Arizona Territory, Republic of the United States, they joined together in the home of Lázaro Puente and Antonio de Pío Araujo, at Number 9 Railway Avenue: Julián Puente, Rafael Salcido, Pedro Puente, Andrés Durán, Francisco Marrujo, Elizardo Montecheli, Antonio de Pío Araujo, Lázaro Puente, Miguel Godínez, Cecilio Mascareñas Romo, and Juan Marrujo, on the night of the third of January, 1906, by invitation of the Liberal Committee formed by Lázaro Puente, Antonio de Pío Araujo, Cecilio Mascareñas Romo, Tomás Espinosa, Miguel Godínez, Andrés Durán, and Pedro Puente, in order to form a Club to uphold the liberal and democratic principles of the Mexican Republic. 

Antonio de Pío Araujo said: Considering that the actual state of things in our country has inhibited the people’s liberty and violated the rights of man, establishing an autocracy with despotic military force; that patriotic and honorable Mexicans cannot permit the wave of violations to individual rights, misinterpretation of law, and the thousand and one vexations, injustices, and abuses that the authorities visit on our compatriots, without energetically protesting through the courtroom or the press, actions which lead them to jail or prison, that even abroad Mexicans are persecuted by the thugs of the autocracy, who conspire with the authorities of the country under whose banner they are covered; I believe that those present, liberals of recognized merit, should congregate and establish a Club, according to the vehement desires of the Liberal Committee that I have the honor of representing. And so I beg you to name the Board of Directors of the Club, to dedicate their efforts to finding the most effective antidotes to combat the autocracy that governs Mexico, our dear country, basing its program on the Resolutions of the Organizing Junta, whose President is found in St. Louis, Missouri on the memorable twenty-eighth of September, 1905. 

Mexicanos: let us dedicate our energy to the restoration of liberty in Mexico. Viva Mexico! Viva el Club! The Board of Directors was then named, being elected by a majority of votes: Lázaro Puente, President; Miguel Godínez, Vice President; Señor Romo, Treasurer; Antonio de Pío Araujo, Secretary; Her… Rivera, first vocal; Elizardo Montecheli, second vocal; Andrés Durán, substitute first vocal; Tomás Espinosa, substitute second vocal. Having assumed their posts, President Lázaro Puente said: Although we are far from uniting in ourselves the wisdom and skills to direct the sort of group we began today, but full of the best sentiments for our Country, oppressed by the iron hand of a despotic government, accepting the responsibility conferred, for whose performance the guidance of each and every one of its members who comprise this Club; and that finally the work of this Club and the efforts of those who must take the path to the goal to which the Organizing Junta of the Liberal Party, located in St. Louis, Missouri, which tendencies are to save the country and its free institutions. Then, Cecilio Mascareñas Romo took the floor, making a speech so elegant, so full of fervent patriotism, that it was greeted with warm applause. Then Vice President Godínez took the floor, making a short speech intended to awaken and nourish in the spirits of those present the sentiment of patriotism which is as urgent as it is necessary for the Mexican Pople. In the same way some other members briefly expressed the regenerating ideas that ardently beat in the popular spirit. Then the members of the Board of Directors, according to Vice President Godínez, expressed their gratitude for their own nominations. Then the Secretary Araujo and other members of the Board of Directors made some propositions, approving the following agreements: First. The Club would carry the name Libertad. Second. The Secretary would send a communication giving notice of the establishment of the Club to the Organizing Junta of the Liberal Party in St. Louis, Missouri, to the Liberal Clubs established in the Republic of Mexico and the United States, and in general to the Mexican Liberal Press of both countries. Third. For the formulation of internal statutes and regulations, Miguel Godínez and Antonio de Pío Araujo were named, to present their work in the shortest time possible. Fourth. It was agreed that the monthly dues for the expenses of the Club and the funds to be sent to the Junta in St. Louis will be according to the coupons that at this same time are signed, whose quota should be paid before the thirteenth of this month. Fifth. The expense for the rental of a typewriter for the use of the Secretary is approved. Sixth. Each one of the members is authorized to invite one or more persons to join the Club. Seventh. All the members should wear a badge, like the one on the margin, with the initials PLM meaning Partido Liberal Mexicano. Eighth. To hold the next session on the seventh day of this month at seven o’clock in the evening. With which the meeting was ended, with the creation of this document signed by all those present. I witness. Lázaro Puente. Miguel Godínez. C. M. Romo. Antonio de P. Araujo. Andrés Durán. Elizardo Montecheli. Tomás D. Espinosa. Franco Marrujo. Juan Marrujo. Pedro Puente. Julian Puente. Rafael Salcido.

I swear to the assurances of my consideration and respect.


Douglas, Arizona. January 11, 1906

Antonio de Pío Araujo, First Secretary

Letter from RFM to Tomás Espinosa planning the 1906 incursion. This letter was used against RFM in the Tombstone Trial of 1909.

Toronto, Ontario, August 2, 1906

Mr. Tomás D. Espinosa 
Douglas, Arizona

My respected colleague:

The Junta has received with joy the news you sent of having distributed with all happiness the Program of the Party in the mining town of Cananea. Receive our congratulations and applause for the fulfillment of your commission.

I enclose a document credentialing you as the leader commissioned to organize the revolution wherever you consider convenient, especially in Cananea, Douglas, and Nacozari.

It would be good if you, as leader, in organizing the revolution, name some other leaders whose names should be given to the Junta so they may be given their respective credentials.

These leaders will be under your immediate orders, given that you will have made the designations.

I do not know if you are aware that the authorities of the United States do not permit the entry of armed persons into our country.* Therefore you must organize the entry of armed patriots carefully, because the United States is determined not to permit the organization of Mexican forces on its territory, in order to safeguard the neutrality that should exist between the two nations. You must work very cautiously, so that there are no denunciations to slow the forward march of our revolutionary organization. I trust that our work shall be carried forward with all prudence. I already know what the rifles cost. I will give you details soon. It would be good to be sure of the existence of two thousand rifles in the basement of the store in Cananea. If those rifles do exist, what should be done is to fall upon them at the appropriate hour, before Greene can arm his people. And so eveything must be done with much discretion. That no one know the intentions of the liberals so they can take the arms by surprise. I’m saying that the intentions of the liberals as to the day chosen for the uprising should not be discovered, since regarding the rest, the government already knows that the people will rise up some day. What matters is that the government and its agents not know on what day so we can take the arms by surprise.

I pray you tell me if you could do this with probable success, that is, capture the arms, in order to thus calculate the strength of the party.

It would also be good for us to take the dynamite to use to blow up the train tracks.

You must not forgive [Isidro] Castañedo, nor [Arturo] Carrillo, nor [Pablo] Rubio, but take care with one thing: do not attack the Americans. Above all we must get rid of our own government, and then there will be time to deal with the foreigners. What we need is to avoid in any way we can the intervention of the United States. The authorities are the cause of all our ills and they must be hung. It is good to understand that if we attack the Americans, the tyrants will not hesitate to ask for help from the United States. The treachery of our tyrants is proven. So we must direct our blows against the tyrants. I await your correspondence. Soon I will give you news regarding the prices of rifles.

The day for the struggle still cannot be named because a few details still need to be arranged, but the moment awaited by all will not be long. Do not despair. 

May the citizens soon be armed, to be ready when the hour comes.

Know that your friend and colleague cares for you,

Ricardo Flores Magón 

*Section 5286 of the Revised Statutes of 1873 of the Laws of Neutrality establishes that: “Whatever person who within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States should begin, put in march, or provide the means for whatever expedition or military endeavor, to be carried out from there against the terrritory or dominions of whatever government or foreign state… with which the United States be at peace, shall be considered guilty of a serious crime, and a fine of no more than three thousand dollars shall be levied against him and he shall be imprisoned for [not] more than three years.” After February of 1907, on the advice of the attorney John W. Foster to Enrique Creel, the Mexican authorities solicited of their counterparts in the United States, the persecution and jailing of sympathizers and members of the Mexican Liberal Party for violation of the indicated section.